Seventy-five Percent There

Andrew Huberman recommends David Brooks’s The Road to Character on his podcast this week. Meanwhile, with the first three academic quarters complete and one to go, I’m preparing to fully engage my social studies class in the Civil War when we get back from spring break. An essential question of our course is “what does it mean to be an American?” Our curriculum leads us to study the character of Washington, Hamilton, Jefferson, Jackson, Lincoln, and others, along with the character of the American people in general. Connecting character to history is integral to this study, and caused me to ask GPT-4 a few questions. Your thoughts on its responses are appreciated.

Analyze U.S. history in 80-year increments, focusing on the Revolution around 1780, the Civil War around 1860, World War II around 1940, and the events around 2020. What were the big ideas of each epoch? What ideas did they have in common? What were different? What lessons can we take away from the historical events and the ideas that surround them?

In this analysis of U.S. history, we will focus on four significant epochs: the Revolution around 1780, the Civil War around 1860, World War II around 1940, and the events around 2020. Each period was marked by unique challenges and ideas, but we can also identify some common themes and lessons that can be learned.

Revolution (around 1780):

Big Ideas: Independence, Enlightenment, and Democracy.

The American Revolution was driven by the desire for independence from Britain and the establishment of a democratic government. Key Enlightenment ideas, such as the social contract, natural rights, and separation of powers, underpinned the drafting of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

Civil War (around 1860):

Big Ideas: National Unity, Abolition of Slavery, and Federalism.

The Civil War period was marked by a struggle between the North and the South over issues such as slavery and states’ rights. The abolition of slavery was a significant idea that came to the forefront, and the eventual victory of the Union preserved the unity of the country. This period also reinforced the role of the federal government in maintaining national cohesion.

World War II (around 1940):

Big Ideas: Democracy vs. Fascism, Global Cooperation, and Economic Recovery.

During World War II, the United States, along with its allies, fought against the Axis Powers, led by Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. The struggle between democracy and fascism defined the conflict, and the U.S. emerged as a global superpower. The post-war period witnessed the establishment of international organizations like the United Nations and economic recovery initiatives such as the Marshall Plan.

Events around 2020:

Big Ideas: Globalization, Technological Advancements, and Social Justice.

This period was characterized by increased globalization, rapid technological advancements, and growing social and political awareness. The emergence of the internet and social media facilitated communication and information sharing, leading to various social justice movements, including Black Lives Matter. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the importance of global cooperation and the need for robust healthcare systems.

Common Ideas:

The struggle for rights and equality: Each epoch dealt with fights for rights and equality, whether it was independence from Britain, the abolition of slavery, democracy versus fascism, or social justice movements.

National and global unity: Each period emphasized the importance of unity, either in maintaining the nation’s integrity or fostering global cooperation.


Scope: The Revolution and Civil War primarily focused on internal American issues, while World War II and the 2020 events dealt with global challenges and cooperation.

Driving forces: Each epoch was driven by different forces, from the quest for independence to the struggle against slavery, the fight against fascism, and the pursuit of social justice.


The importance of unity and cooperation: National unity and global cooperation have been essential in overcoming significant challenges throughout history.

The ongoing struggle for rights and equality: Each period witnessed a fight for rights and equality, emphasizing the importance of continued efforts to address social inequalities.

Adaptation to change: The United States has demonstrated an ability to adapt to changing circumstances, whether it be political, economic, or social. This adaptability has been crucial in overcoming challenges and maintaining the nation’s global influence.

Compare these lessons of history with the lessons of The Road to Character by David Brooks.

The Road to Character by David Brooks explores the development of character traits through personal struggle and growth. The book emphasizes the importance of humility, selflessness, and resilience in cultivating personal virtues. While the historical events and ideas discussed earlier focused on political, social, and economic aspects, the lessons from The Road to Character emphasize individual moral development.

Comparing the lessons from U.S. history and The Road to Character:

Importance of unity and cooperation vs. humility and selflessness:

Both the historical events and Brooks’ work emphasize the need for connection and collaboration. The historical lessons underscore the significance of national and global unity, while Brooks emphasizes humility and selflessness, which foster positive relationships and a sense of community.

The ongoing struggle for rights and equality vs. moral development:

The historical events highlight the continuous fight for rights and equality throughout various periods, while The Road to Character emphasizes moral development as an essential component of personal growth. Both perspectives emphasize the importance of striving for betterment, either socially or personally.

Adaptation to change vs. resilience:

The lessons from U.S. history show that adaptation to change has been crucial in overcoming challenges and maintaining global influence. Similarly, Brooks highlights resilience as a vital character trait that enables individuals to navigate personal struggles and adversity.

In summary, the lessons from U.S. history and The Road to Character complement each other, as they both emphasize the importance of connection, continuous improvement, and adaptability. While the historical events provide a macro perspective on these themes, The Road to Character offers a micro perspective that focuses on individual growth and character development.

How should one analyze history in ways that help to build wisdom and humility?

Analyzing history to build wisdom and humility involves a reflective approach, considering both successes and failures and seeking to learn from past experiences. Here are some strategies to analyze history with the goal of cultivating wisdom and humility:

Emphasize context and nuance:

Understand the complexities and context of historical events, recognizing that people lived in different times with different norms, values, and knowledge. This understanding fosters humility as it reminds us of the limitations of our own perspective.

Study diverse perspectives:

Include multiple viewpoints and experiences to gain a comprehensive understanding of historical events. Analyzing history from various angles encourages empathy and humility, as it reminds us that our own viewpoint is just one among many.

Recognize human fallibility:

Acknowledge that people, including historical figures, are imperfect and make mistakes. By understanding their flaws and the consequences of their actions, we can develop humility and learn valuable lessons for our own lives.

Seek lessons and patterns:

Identify recurring themes, patterns, and lessons that emerge from historical events. By extracting these insights, we can develop wisdom that can be applied to current and future challenges.

Celebrate progress while remaining critical:

Recognize the progress humanity has made over time, while also critically examining areas where improvements are still needed. This balanced approach encourages gratitude and humility, as it acknowledges our collective achievements and areas for growth.

Reflect on personal connections:

Consider how historical events and ideas have shaped your own life, values, and beliefs. By recognizing our place in the broader historical context, we can develop a sense of humility and a deeper understanding of our interconnectedness.

Engage in dialogue:

Discuss historical events and ideas with others, seeking to learn from their perspectives and experiences. Engaging in dialogue fosters humility, as it reminds us of the value of collective wisdom and the limitations of individual understanding.

By approaching the study of history with curiosity, empathy, and a willingness to learn from the past, we can cultivate wisdom and humility, ultimately becoming more insightful and compassionate individuals.

How does the development of large language models and artificial intelligence help us to do this more effectively? What potential does this emerging technology have to create more meaningful lives for more people around the world?

Large language models and artificial intelligence (AI) have the potential to help us analyze history, build wisdom and humility, and create more meaningful lives in various ways:

Access to information:

AI can provide easy access to vast amounts of historical data and resources, enabling individuals to study diverse perspectives and learn from a broader range of sources. This increased access helps to build wisdom by allowing for a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of historical events.

Analyzing patterns and trends:

AI can help identify recurring themes, patterns, and lessons in history by processing and analyzing large volumes of data. By uncovering these insights, AI assists in building wisdom that can be applied to current and future challenges.

Personalized learning experiences:

AI-powered educational tools can offer personalized learning experiences tailored to individual interests, needs, and abilities. This personalization fosters a deeper connection to historical events and ideas, promoting the development of wisdom and humility.

Enhancing global communication:

AI language translation tools can break down language barriers, facilitating communication and dialogue between people from different cultures and backgrounds. This global exchange of ideas encourages empathy and humility, as well as the sharing of knowledge and wisdom.

Reducing bias and promoting diverse perspectives:

AI can be designed to identify and mitigate biases in historical analysis, ensuring that diverse viewpoints and experiences are represented. By promoting more inclusive and objective interpretations of history, AI contributes to the development of wisdom and humility.

Supporting marginalized communities:

AI can help address social inequalities by providing access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities for people in underserved communities. By creating more equitable and meaningful lives for more people, AI contributes to a wiser and more compassionate world.

However, it is important to recognize that AI technology also has its limitations and potential risks, such as perpetuating existing biases and inequalities. It is essential to develop and deploy AI responsibly, with an emphasis on transparency, fairness, and inclusivity, to ensure that it serves as a force for good in building wisdom, humility, and meaningful lives for people around the world.

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